Wynton Kelly , his replacement, brought to the group a swinging style that contrasted with Evans's delicacy. The sextet made their recording debut on Jazz Track By early , Davis was exhausted from recording and touring with his quintet and wished to pursue new projects.
During a two-week residency in Chicago in March, the year-old Davis told journalists of his intention to retire at its conclusion and revealed offers he had received to become a teacher at Harvard University and a musical director at a record label. Davis accepted and worked with Gil Evans in what became a five-album collaboration from to Evans devised orchestral passages as transitions, thus turning the album into one long piece of music.
The classical musicians had trouble improvising, while the jazz musicians couldn't handle the difficult arrangements, but the album was a critical success, selling over , copies in the US.
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Evans stated it was only half an album and blamed the record company; Davis blamed producer Teo Macero and refused to speak to him for more than two years. In March and April , Davis recorded what many critics consider his greatest album, Kind of Blue He named the album for its mood. Released in August , Kind of Blue was an instant success, with widespread radio airplay and rave reviews from critics. During the success of Kind of Blue , Davis found himself involved with the law. As he was escorting a blonde-haired woman to a taxi, policeman Gerald Kilduff told him to "move on. Davis was taken to jail, charged for assaulting an officer, then taken to the hospital where he received five stitches.
Davis and his sextet toured to support Kind of Blue. Coltrane then departed to form his quartet, though he returned for some tracks on Davis's album Someday My Prince Will Come Its front cover shows a photograph of his wife, Frances Taylor, after Davis demanded that Columbia depict black women on his album covers. He later wrote, "Every time I hit her, I felt bad because a lot of it really wasn't her fault but had to do with me being temperamental and jealous.
About a week after the photograph for the album E. In December , Davis, Kelly, Chambers, Cobb, and Rollins played together for the last time as the first three wanted to leave and play as a trio. Following auditions, he found his new band in tenor saxophonist George Coleman , bassist Ron Carter , pianist Victor Feldman , and drummer Frank Butler. The quintet played essentially the same bebop tunes and standards that Davis's previous bands had played, but they approached them with structural and rhythmic freedom and occasionally breakneck speed.
This quintet lasted through Shorter became the group's principal composer, and the album E. While touring Europe, the group made its first album, Miles in Berlin Davis needed medical attention for hip pain, which had worsened since his Japanese tour during the previous year. After his third month in the hospital, he discharged himself due to boredom and went home.
He returned to the hospital in August after a fall required the insertion of a plastic hip joint. Teo Macero returned as his engineer and record producer after their rift over Quiet Nights had healed.
In January , Davis spent three months in the hospital due to a liver infection. When he resumed touring, he performed more at colleges because he had grown tired of the typical jazz venues. Matters were not helped by the press reporting his apparent financial troubles and imminent demise. He started a relationship with actress Cicely Tyson , who helped him reduce his alcohol consumption. Material from the — sessions was released on Miles Smiles , Sorcerer , Nefertiti , Miles in the Sky , and Filles de Kilimanjaro The quintet's approach to the new music became known as "time no changes"—which referred to Davis's decision to depart from chordal sequences and adopt a more open approach, with the rhythm section responding to the soloists' melodies.
In , the group began to play their concerts in continuous sets, each tune flowing into the next, with only the melody indicating any sort of change.
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His bands performed this way until his hiatus in Miles in the Sky and Filles de Kilimanjaro —which tentatively introduced electric bass, electric piano, and electric guitar on some tracks—pointed the way to the fusion phase of Davis's career. He also began experimenting with more rock-oriented rhythms on these records. Davis soon took over the compositional duties of his sidemen.
In September , Davis married year-old model and songwriter Betty Mabry. In his autobiography, Davis described her as a "high-class groupie, who was very talented but who didn't believe in her own talent. The album contains two side-long tracks that Macero pieced together from different takes recorded at the session resembling elements of a classical sonata form.
In a Silent Way was his entry into jazz fusion. The touring band of ——with Shorter, Corea, Holland, and DeJohnette—never completed a studio recording together, and became known as Davis's "lost quintet". In October , Davis was shot at five times while in his car with one of his two lovers, Marguerite Eskridge.
The incident left him with a graze and Eskridge unharmed. The album contained long compositions, some over twenty minutes, that were never played in the studio but were constructed from several takes by Macero and Davis. Other studio techniques included splicing, multitrack recording, and tape loops. By , it had sold one million copies. In March , Davis began to perform as the opening act for various rock acts, allowing Columbia to market Bitches Brew to a larger audience. He was so offended by Clive Davis's suggestion to perform at the Fillmore East that he threatened to switch record labels, but he reconsidered and shared a bill with the Steve Miller Band and Neil Young with Crazy Horse on March 6 and 7.
Miles Davis at Fillmore West He was committed to making music for African-Americans who liked more commercial, pop, groove-oriented music. Showcasing former Stevie Wonder touring bassist Michael Henderson , who replaced Holland in the autumn of , the album demonstrated that Davis's ensemble had transformed into a funk-oriented group while retaining the exploratory imperative of Bitches Brew.
In , composer-arranger Paul Buckmaster introduced Davis to the music of German avant-garde composer Karlheinz Stockhausen , leading to a period of creative exploration. Chambers wrote, "The effect of Davis' study of Stockhausen could not be repressed for long Davis' own 'space music' shows Stockhausen's influence compositionally. Davis invited Buckmaster to New York City to oversee the writing and recording of the album with Macero.
On the Corner elicited a favorable review from Ralph J. Gleason of Rolling Stone ,  but Davis felt that Columbia marketed it to the wrong audience. He took painkillers and cocaine to cope with the pain. Only Smith was a jazz instrumentalist; consequently, the music emphasized rhythmic density and shifting textures instead of solos. This group was recorded live for In Concert , but Davis found it unsatisfactory, leading him to drop the tabla and sitar and play keyboards. He also added guitarist Pete Cosey. The compilation studio album Big Fun contains four long improvisations recorded between and Studio activity in the s culminated in sessions throughout and for Get Up with It , a compilation that included four long pieces comprising over ninety minutes of new music alongside four shorter recordings from and The album contained "He Loved Him Madly", a thirty-minute tribute to the recently deceased Duke Ellington that presaged later developments in ambient music.
He then concentrated on live performance with a series of concerts that Columbia released on the double live albums Agharta , Pangaea , and Dark Magus The first two are recordings of two sets from February 1, in Osaka, by which time Davis was troubled by pneumonia, osteoarthritis, sickle-cell anemia, depression, bursitis, and stomach ulcers; he relied on alcohol, codeine, and morphine to get through the engagements. His shows were routinely panned by critics who mentioned his habit of performing with his back to the audience.
Hancock had eclipsed his former employer from a commercial standpoint with Head Hunters and Thrust , two albums that were marketed to pop audiences in the aftermath of the On the Corner farrago and peaked at number 13 on the Billboard pop chart. In his autobiography, Davis wrote frankly about his life during his hiatus from music.
He called his Upper West Side brownstone a wreck and chronicled his heavy use of alcohol and cocaine, in addition to his sexual encounters with many women. But after his lawyer started negotiating with United Artists , Columbia matched their offer, establishing the Miles Davis Fund to pay him regularly.
Pianist Vladimir Horowitz was the only other musician with Columbia that had a similar status. In , Julie Coryell interviewed Davis. Concerned about his health, she had him stay with a friend in Norwalk, Connecticut.
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Stevens , and drummer Al Foster. After Coryell declined a spot in a band that Davis was beginning to put together, Davis returned to his reclusive lifestyle in New York City. In August , Davis hired a new manager, Mark Rothbaum, who had worked with him since By , Davis had rekindled his relationship with actress Cicely Tyson , with whom he overcame his cocaine addiction and regained his enthusiasm for music.
The two married on November 26, , in a ceremony at Bill Cosby 's home in Massachusetts that was officiated by politician and civil rights activist Andrew Young. In October , his contract with Columbia was up for negotiation. Label president Clive Davis was replaced by George Butler , who had visited Davis several times during the previous two years to encourage him to return to the studio. To help his situation, Davis had Buckmaster come over to collaborate on new music. Davis later thanked Buckmaster for helping him.
Davis hadn't played the trumpet much for three years and found it difficult to reclaim his embouchure. His first studio appearance since his hiatus took place on May 1, A large band was abandoned in favor of a combo with saxophonist Bill Evans not to be confused with pianist Bill Evans and bassist Marcus Miller. Both would collaborate with him during the next decade. The Man with the Horn received a poor critical reception despite selling well.
In June , Davis returned to the stage for the first time since in a ten-minute guest solo as part of Mel Lewis 's band at the Village Vanguard. In January , while Tyson was working in Africa, Davis "went a little wild" with alcohol, and suffered a stroke that temporarily paralyzed his right hand.
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After three months of treatment with a Chinese acupuncturist, he was able to play the trumpet again. He listened to his doctor's warnings and gave up alcohol and drugs. He credited Tyson with helping his recovery, which involved exercise, piano playing, and visits to spas. She encouraged him to draw, which he pursued for the rest of his life. Davis resumed touring in May with a line-up that included French percussionist Mino Cinelu and guitarist John Scofield , with whom he worked closely on the album Star People In mid, he worked on the tracks for Decoy , an album mixing soul music and electronica that was released in With a seven-piece band that included Scofield, Evans, Irving, Foster, and Darryl Jones , he played a series of European performances that were positively received.
Trumpeter Palle Mikkelborg had written a contemporary classical piece titled "Aura" for the event which impressed Davis to the point of returning to Denmark in early to record his next studio album, Aura In May , one month into a tour, Davis signed a contract with Warner Bros. Marsalis whispered into Davis' ear that "someone" had told him to do so. Davis responded by ordering him off the stage.
The breaking point appears to have come when a producer at Columbia asked him to call Marsalis and wish him a happy birthday. The tour in included a performance in London in July in which Davis performed on stage for five hours. Jazz critic John Fordham concluded, "The leader is clearly enjoying himself. It included cover versions of two pop songs: He considered releasing an album of pop songs, and he recorded dozens of them, but the idea was rejected. He said that many of today's jazz standards had been pop songs in Broadway theater and that he was simply updating the standards repertoire.